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P H O T O G A L L E R Y - Emotional/Psychological Harm
To better understand the emotional/psychological harm from genital cutting that was documented by survey respondents, these images may offer some insight.
Hospital/USA "Bris"/U.K. "Bris"/Israel Tyup Sultan Mosque/Istanbul "Circumicsion Palace"/Istanbul "Kataan"/Turkey "Tuli"/Philippines "Tuli"/Philippines "Tuli"/Philippines Aboriginal Circumcision/Australia Circumcision/Africa
While the extremes of male and female genital cutting may differ in the effects upon individuals, one common denominator is the fact that no matter how "serious" or "minor" the public may perceive the differences in harm to be, the damage is often an all-consuming issue to the individual who must live with the loss of their inherent genital integrity, especially when the genital loss and scars were imposed on them when they could not consent, refuse or escape.
Ronald Goldman's book Circumcision: The Hidden Trauma explores the psychological effects of male genital cutting.
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